Types of the journey may be several types based on the classification :

  1. Based on the boundary of states; it can be domestic or international.
  2. Based on distance, it can be long haul or short-haul.
  3. Based on fare construction; (it is mostly used in Airline ticketing) there are 5 types of journey :

1. One way journey (OW)- In this journey, the place of origin (city of departure) is different than the city of arrival, generally in a single route,

2. Round Trips (RT)- IATA defines the term ‘Round trip’ (RT) means to travel from one point (Origin City) to another (turn around point) and return by any air route, e.g., Delhi – Chennai – Delhi – London. He around is the farthest point from where one returns.

Thus it has two segments :

(i) outbound

(ii) inbound.

3. Circle Trip (CT)- IATA defines a journey from a point and returns to that by a continuous circuitous air route, which does not belong to the category of the round trip.

In both the above cases (RT & CT), the place of origin and final destination are the same, but in RT, the outbound and inbound segments are the same while it is not in CT. It means in RT, the outbound segment is equal to the incoming part, but in CT, they are unequal. In both cases, there is a turn around point, it is the farthest point from where the journey returns.

4. Open Jaw (OJ) Journey: This journey is like the mouth of an alligator.

Here there can be two types of cases:-

(i) Place of origin and final destination are in the same region but not identical,

(ii) There is some surface transport in air itinerary, e.g., Delhi – London – Mumbai or Delhi – Karachi – (Surface) Islamabad  In the first case, the journey is like RT. Still, it could not be completed, through Delhi and Mumbai are in the same region. In the second case, there is a surface segment; thus, it is not a complete air itinerary.

5. Round the World Journey (RTW) – In such a journey east one crossing over Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean, e.g., Delhi -New York -San Fransisco -Tokyo It is a type of RT and CT depending on the situation.

Use of these types of journeys:- they have used is in fare calculation. Generally, if we see the fares in Air Tariff’s book, we find that RT fare is less than double of OW fare, e.g., if ticket between A – B city is Rs. 5000, its double is Rs. 10000, but in the RT case, it will be less than Rs. 10000. That’s why in all the above situations (except one-way journey) the fare calculation will be like, from city A to B (turn around point, from where the journey moves inward side) = ½ RT fare and from B to A (inbound segment) = ½ RT fare. Thus, the RT fares are cheaper than OW fare.


  • Steps of Ticketing :

There are two aspects of airline ticketing (i) air itinerary formulation and fare calculation and (ii) ticket filling. Both processes are different in domestic and international cases.

Domestic Ticketing :

In this case, Itinerary preparation is simple. There can be direct or indirect flights. If there is a direct flight, then there is no problem, e.g., Delhi ® Chennai, but if not, e.g., Ranchi – Chennai then connects the flights as mentioned in the lesson 9. In India, the domestic fares of different airlines are published in different fare booklets. These can be seen on the Internet also. The fares are published on a sectoral basis for each sector. These fares are known as Basic fare. Then include ‘Inland Air Travel Tax (IATT),’ which varies from 0-15% depending on the category of the sector. Sometimes this tax is included in the basic fare. Then includes Passenger Service Fee (PSF) now coded as WO, @ Rs. 425 per sector per person. Then security tax (YR) @ Rs. 300 and fuel surcharge (YQ) @ Rs.1500 should be added. In Delhi and Mumbai, there is an air congestion charge @ Rs. 150 also be added. Thus, there are several types of taxes, these taxes are changing from time to time, which are applicable, and before fare calculation, one should consult the airline. These taxes are hidden on the internet ticketing, so a customer may think that ticket is very cheap, but actually, there can be a different case. Airlines are offering several Advance Purchased Excursion fares (APEX), which appear very cheap. They do not tell about cancellation charges.  Each airline follows its own policy about the cancellation that is not shown on the Internet. So, one should be very conscious of all these factors.

Now, the format of the domestic ticket is shown, as mentioned earlier, many domestic airlines are now avoiding these handwritten paper tickets. But these are very useful to understand the procedure. If you know the fundamentals of ticketing, then you can save against any type of exploitation.

Domestic tickets are straightforward. At first, see the format of a domestic ticket. To a certain extent, they are similar to an international ticket. Now they are the basis for ‘e-tickets.’ In writing or filling the ticket, all entries should be made with a ballpoint pen. Here cutting and overwriting are not allowed.


  1. Enter passenger’s Name: Surname should be followed by a slash, then first and second name. Then indicate Mr. Mrs., Ms. Or Master, e.g., Kumar/R.B./Mr.
  2. Enter Passenger’s Itinerary in full spelling; if there is a vacant line, then write VOID. Don’t leave blank nor draw dash.
  3. Enter flight number (see the time table) according to the need of passenger’s choice of flight no.
  4. Enter the time of departure in 24 hours, e.g., 1800 Hrs, instead of 0600 PM.
  5. Enter the scheduled date of departure in double digits, followed by the first three letters of months, e.g., 03 JUN.
  6. Status- Enter reservation status code, e.g., OK= Confirmed ticket, WL-Wait list, RQ= Requested, N.S.= No Seat (this is a case of an infant only).
  7. Enter codes representing the basis of fair, typically there is class/type of journey, e.g., YOW (Y class & one way) or YRT= Y class & Return Trip. There are several types of concessional tickets or discounted tickets, e.g., concessions to students, army men, war widows, patients, or discounted tickets in a particular season. In such a case, the code of the type of unique journey should be mentioned.
  8. Enter the date of validity for each segment.
  9. Enter free baggage allowance as applicable to each segment.
  10. Enter special instructions in endorsement, e.g., not transferable.
  11. Complete the fare calculation

a – Write two letters city/airport codes

b – Write three letters/no. Carrier codes

c– fare in each sector.

12. Enter the fare in the currency collected in other than the local currency

13. Enter amounts of tax (es)

14. Enter the total of fare plus all taxes.

15. appropriate form of payment codes, e.g., CASH, CHEQUE, AGENT, or CR (Credit Card) with its codes and number.

16. This most essential part of the ticket, known as validation, travel agent is given a validating machine (stamp), so there should be a stamp with signature, date, and place of issue. Without this signature ticket is invalid.


Reference: DDEKUK content is  Written By: “Prof Ravi Kumar Bhushan” DTHM, KUK

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